Papers ("*" indicates papers led by my students)

Ingersoll, A. P., S. Atreya, S. J. Bolton, S. Brueschaber, L. N. Fletcher, E. Galanti, K. Kaspi, S. M. Levin, C. Li, L. Li, J. I. Lunine, G. S. Orton, H. Waite, 2021.

     Jupiter’s overturning circulation: Breaking waves take the place of solid boundaries. Submitted to GRL.

*Creecy, E., L., Li, X. Jiang, M. D. Smith, P. M. Fry, A. Kleinboehl, D. M. Kass, 2021.

     Mars’ Emitted Energy Using MGS/TES Observations. Submitted to Nature Astronomy.

Duer, K., Gavriel, N., Galanti, E., Kaspi, Y., 
Fletcher, L. N., Bolton, S. J., Grassi, D., Guillot, T., Ingersoll, A. P., Levin, S. M., Li, C., Li, L., Lunine, J. I., Orton, G. S., Oyafuso, F. A., Waite, H., 2021.

     Evidence for multiple Ferrel cells on Jupiter. Submitted to Nature.

Li. L, E., *Creecy, X. Jiang, R. West, C. Nixon, P. Fry, and M. Kenyon, 2021.

     Titan's Energy Imbalance During the Cassini Epoch (2004-2017). Submitted to PNAS.

Fletcher, L. N., F. A. Oyafuso, M. Allison, A. Ingersoll, L. Li, Y. Kaspi, E. Galanti, M.H. Wong, G.S. Orton, K. Duer, Z. Zhang, C. Li, T. Guillot, S.M. Levin, S. Bolton, 2021.

     Jupiter’s Temperate Belt/Zone Contrasts Revealed at Depth by Juno Microwave Observations. JGR-Planets, in revision.

Li. L, A. *Studwell, T. E. Dowling, M. E. Bradley, E. C. *Creecy, R. J. *Albright, X. Jiang, 2021.

     Unsymmetrical expansion of bright clouds from Saturn’s 2010 Great White Storm. Icarus, in revision.

Li, C., L. N. Fletcher, M. Allison, S. Atreya, G. Bjoraker, S. Bolton, E. Galanti, T. Guillot, A. Ingersoll, M. Janssen, Y. Kaspi, S. Levin, L. Li, G. Orton, F. Oyafuso, P. Steffes, M. H. Wong, Z. Zhang, J. Sinclair, P. Donnelly, T. Fujiyoshi, T. Greathouse,2021.

     The Internal structure of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. Science,in revision.

Li, L., West, R. A., Kenyon, M. E., Nixon, C. A., Fry, P. M., Wenkert, D., Hofstadter, M. D., Jiang, X., Creecy, E. C., Sanchez-Lavega, A., Baines, K. H., Mallama, A., Hu, R., Achterberg, R. K., Aslam, S., Banfield, D., Dyudina, U., Fortney, J. J., Ingersoll, A. P., Kleinböhl, A., Fletcher, L., Limaye, S., Marley, M. S., Smith, M. D., Soderlund, K. M., Spilker, L. J., Young, C. L., 2021.

     Radiant Energy Budgets and Internal Heat of Planets and Moons. Bulletin of American Astronomical Society (BAAS), 53, doi:10.3847/25c2cfeb.0d20e989. [PDF]

Guillot, T., J. Fortney, E. Rauscher, M. Marley, V. Parmentier, M. Line, H. Wakeford, Y. Kaspi, R. Helled, M. Ikoma, H. Knutson, K. Menou, D. Valencia, D. Durante, S. Ida, S. Bolton, C. Li, K. Stevenson, J. Bean, N. Cowan, M. Hofstadter, R. Hueso, J. Leconte, L. Li, C. Mordasini, O. Mousis, N. Nettelmann, K. Soderlund, and M. Wong, 2021.

     Keys of a Mission to Uranus or Neptune, the Closest Ice Giants. Bulletin of American Astronomical Society (BAAS),53, doi:10.3847/25c2cfeb.a267c514. [PDF]

Heng, K. and L. Li, 2021.

     Jupiter as an exoplanet: insight from Cassini phase curves. The Astrophysical Journal Letter, 909, doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abe872. [PDF]

Zhang, Z., V. Adumitroaie, M. Allison, J. Arballo, S. Atreya, G. Bjoraker, S. Bolton, S. Brown, L. N. Fletcher, T. Guillot, S. Gulkis, A. Hodges, A. Ingersoll, M. Janssen, S. Levin, C. Li, L. Li, J. Lunine, S. Misra, G. Orton, F. Oyafuso, P. Steffes, M. H. Wong, 2020.

     Residual study: Testing Jupiter atmosphere models against Juno MWR observations. Earth and Space Science, 7, doi:10.1029/2020EA001229. [PDF]

Li, C., A. Ingersoll, S. Bolton, S. Levin, M. Janssen, S. Atreya, J. Lunine, P. Steffes, S. Brown, T. Guillot, M. Allison, J. Arballo, A. Bellotti, V. Adumitroaie, S. Gulkis, A. Hodges, L. Li, S. Misra, G. Orton, F. Oyafuso, D. Santos-Costa, H. Waite, and Z. Zhang, 2020.

     The Water Abundance in Jupiter's Equatorial Zone. Nature Astronomy, doi:10.1038/s41550-020-1009-3. [PDF]

     This study was reported by the media including NASA, Cosmos Magazine, and Tech Explorist (e.g.,

*Creecy, E., L. Li, X. Jiang, C. Nixon, R. West, M. Kenyon, 2019.

     Seasonal Variations of Titan's Brightness. GRL, 45, doi:10.1029/2019GL084833. [PDF]

     This study was reported by the media including foxnews, sciencedaily, and (e.g.,

Li, L., X. Jiang, R. A. West, P. J. Gierasch, S. Perez-Hoyos, A. Sanchez-Lavega, L. N. Fletcher, J. J. Fortney, B. Knowles, C. C. Porco, K. H. Baines, P. M. Fry, A. Mallama, R. K. Achterberg, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, G. S. Orton, U. A. Dyudina, S. P. Ewald, 2018.

     Less Absorbed Solar Energy And More Internal Heat For Jupiter. Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06107-2. [PDF]

     This study was reported by the media including a “Planetary News” from the Lunar and Planetary Institute (e.g.,

*Studwell, A., L. Li, X. Jiang, K. Baines, P. Fry, T. Monmary, U. Dyudina, 2018.

     Saturn's zonal winds probed by the Cassini VIMS 5-micron images. GRL, 45, doi:10.1029/2018GL078139. [PDF]

     This is an invited paper to a special issue on GRL for the Cassini Grand-Finale mission.

Brown, S., M. Janssen, V. Adumitroaie, S. Atreya, S. Bolton, S. Gulkis, A. Ingersoll, S. Levin, C. Li, L. Li, J. Lunine, S. Misra, G. Orton, P. Steffes, F. Tabataba-Vakili, 2018.

     Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter’s poles. Nature, 568, 87-90. [PDF]

     This study was reported by the media including Science News,, Scientific American, and Science Alert (e.g.,

*Kao,A., X. Jiang, L. Li, J. H. Trammell, G. J. Zhang, H. Su, J. H. Jiang, and Y. L. Yung, 2018.

     A comparative study of atmospheric moisture recycling rate between observations and models. Journal of Climate, 31, 2389-2398. [PDF]

Fletcher, L. N., S. Guerlet, G. Orton, R. Cosentino, T. Fouchet, P. Irwin, L. Li, N. Gorius, F. M. Flasar, R. Morales-Juberias, 2017.

     Disruption of Saturn’s Quasi-Periodic Equatorial Oscillation by the Great Northern Storm. Nature Astronomy 1, 765-770, doi:10.1038/s41550-017-0271-5. [PDF]

The study was covered by a News and Views on Nature (

Ingersoll, A.P., V. Adumitroaie, M. D. Allison, S. Atreya, A. A. Bellotti, S. J. Bolton, S.T. Brown, S. Gulkis, M. A. Janssen, S.M. Levin, C. Li, L. Li, J. I. Lunine, G. S. Orton, F. A. Oyafuso, P. G. Steffes, 2017.

     Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, doi:10.1002/2017GL074277. [PDF]

*Corbett, A., X. Jiang, X. Xiong, A. Kao, and L. Li, 2017.

     Modulation of mid-tropospheric methane by El Nino. Earth & Space Science 4, doi:10.1002/2017EA000281. [PDF]

*Kao, A., X. Jiang, L. Li, H. Su, and Y. Yung, 2017.

     Precipitation, circulation, and cloud variability over the past two decades. Earth & Space Science 4, doi:10.1002/2017EA000319. [PDF]

Jiang, X., A. Kao, A. Corbett, E. Olsen, T. Pagano, A. Zhai, S. Newman, L. Li, and Y. L. Yung, 2017.

     Influence of droughts on mid-tropospheric CO2. Remote Sensing, doi:10.3390/rs9080852. [PDF]

Janssen, M. A., J.E. Oswald, S.T. Brown, S. Gulkis, S.M. Levin, S.J. Bolton, M.D. Allison, S.K. Atreya, D.Gautier, A.P. Ingersoll, J.I. Lunine, G.S. Orton, T.C. Owen, P.G. Steffes, V. Adumitroaie, A. Bellotti, L.A. Jewell, C. Li, L. Li, S. Misra, F.A. Oyafuso, D. Santos-Costa, E. Sarkissian, R. Williamson, J.K. Arballo, A. Kitiyakara, A. Ulloa-Severino, J.C. Chen, F.W. Maiwald, A.S. Sahakian, P.J. Pingree, K.A. Lee, A.S. Mazer, R. Redick, R.E. Hodges, R.C. Hughes, G. Bedrosian, D.E. Dawson, W.A. Hatch, D.S. Russell, N.F. Chamberlain, M.S. Zawadski, B. Khayatian, B.R. Franklin, H.A. Conley, J.G. Kempenaar, M.S. Loo, E.T. Sunada, V. Vorperion, and C.C. Wang, 2017.

     MWR: Microwave radiometer for the Juno mission to Jupiter. Space Science Reviews, 1-47. [PDF]

*Pan, Y., L. Li, X. Jiang, G. Li, W. Zhang, A.P. Ingersoll, 2017.

     Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change. Nature Communications 8, doi:10.1038/ncomms14367. [PDF]

     The study was reported by the media including ScienceDaily, AccuWeather, Science Magazine, Environmental News Network, and so on (e.g., It was also reported by NASA Astrobiology Magazine (

Bering, E. A., L.S. Pinsky, L. Li, D. Jackson, J. Chen, H. Reed, M. Moldwin, J. Kasper, J.P. Sheehan, J. Forbes, T. Heine, A. Case, M. Stevens, 2016.

     MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster. 54th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA SciTech, [PDF]

*Trammell, H. J., L. Li, X. Jiang, Y. Pan, M.A. Smith, E.A. Bering III, S.M. Hörs4, A.R. Vasavada, A.P. Ingersoll, M.A. Janssen, R.A. West C.C. Porco,C. Li, A.A. Simon, and K.H. Baines, 2016.

     The Vortices in Saturn’s Northern Hemisphere from 2008 to 2015 observed by Cassini ISS. JGR-Planets 121, 1814-1826. [PDF]

Sanchez-Lavega, A., E. García-Melendo, S. Perez-Hoyos, R. Hueso, M. H. Wong, A. Simon, J. F. Sanz-Requena, A. Antuñano, N. Barrado-Izagirre, I. Garate-Lopez, J. F. Rojas, T. del Rio Gaztelurrutia, J. M. Gómez-Forrellad, I. de Pater, L. Li and PVOL contributors, 2016.

     An Enduring Rapidly Moving Storm As a Guide to Saturn’s Equatorial Jet Complex Structure. Nature Communications 7, doi:10.1038/ncomms13262. [PDF]

     The study was reported by the media including ScienceDaily, CAHA, Science Newsline, Pinterest, and so on (e.g., ).

Dyudina, U., X. Zhang, L. Li, R. A. West, P. Kopparla, Y. L. Yung, A. P. Ingersoll, L. Dones, 2016.

     Reflected Light Curves, Spherical and Bond Albedos of Jupiter- and Saturn-like Exoplanets. Ap.J. 42, 973-986. [PDF]

*Trammell, J. H., X. Jiang, L. Li, A. Kao, G. J. Zhang, E. Chang, and Y. L. Yung, 2016.

     Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation from observation and model. Journal of Climate 29, 2543-2555. [PDF]

*Trammell, J. H., X. Jiang, L. Li, M. Liang, M. Li, J. Zhou, E. Fetzer, and Y. L. Yung, 2015.

     Investigation of Precipitation Variations over Wet and Dry Areas from Observation and Model. Advances in Meteorology , Art.No.981092. [PDF]

Li, L. et al., 2015.

     Saturnian giant storm and global radiant energy. Geophysical Research Letters 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL063763. [PDF]

Simon, A. A., Li, L, Reuter, D. C,2015.

     Small-scale waves on Jupiter: A reanalysis of New Horizons, Voyager, and Galileo data. Geophysical Research Letters 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL063433. [PDF]

Li, L., 2015.

     Dimming Titan revealed by the Cassini observations. Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/srep08239. [PDF]

*Trammell, H. J., L. Li, X. Jiang, M. Smith, S. Horst, and A.Vasavada, 2014.

     The global vortex analysis of Jupiter and Saturn based on Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem. Icarus 242, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.019. [PDF]

Li, L., et al., 2013.

     Strong Temporal Variability Over One Saturnian Year: From Voyager to Cassini. Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/srep02410. [PDF]

Li, L., et al., 2012.

     Emitted Power of Jupiter Based on Cassini CIRS and VIMS Observations. JGR, doi:10.1029/2012JE004191. [PDF]

Li, L., et al., 2011.

     The global energy balance of Titan. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, doi:10.1029/2011GL050053. [PDF]

     Please refer to the GRL Editors' Highlight titled "Evaluating the global energy balance of Titan". [PDF]

     This paper was selected as the cover page of Geophysical Research Letters in Dec 2011. [PDF]

Li, L., et al., 2011.

     Recycling rate of atmospheric moisture over the past two decades (1988-2009). Environmental Research Letters, 6, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034017. [PDF]

     Please refer to the Environmental Research Web News titled "Insight: how has the recycling rate of atmospheric moisture changed over the past 20 years?". [PDF]

Li, L., et al., 2011.

     Equatorial winds on Saturn and the stratospheric oscillation. Nature-Geosciences, doi:10.1038/NGEO1292. [PDF]

     Please refer to the UH NSM News titled "Observations from the Cassini Spacecraft Provide Details of Saturn's Winds". [PDF]

Li, L., X. Jiang, M. T. Chahine, J. Wang, and Y. L. Yung, 2011.

     The mechanical energies of the global atmosphere in El Nino and La Nina years. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 68, 3072-3078. [PDF]

Li, L., et al., 2010.

     Saturn's Emitted Power. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planet, 115, art. No. E11002. [PDF]

     Please refer to the NASA feature story titled "Saturn is on a cosmic dimmer switch". [PDF]

Li, L., and 9 co-authors, 2008.

     Strong jet and a new thermal wave in Saturn's equatorial stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L16813. [PDF]

Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, X. Jiang, D. Feldman, and Y. L. Yung, 2007.

     Lorenz energy cycle of the global atmosphere based on reanalysis datasets. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, art. No. L16813. [PDF]

     Online Material. [PDF]

Li, L., and 9 co-authors, 2006.

     Waves in Jupiter's atmosphere observed by the Cassini ISS and CIRS instruments. ICARUS, 185, 416-429. [PDF]

Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, A. A. Simon-Miller, A. D. Del Genio, S. P. Ewald, C. C. Porco, and R. A. West, 2006.

     Vertical wind shear on Jupiter from Cassini images. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, doi:10.1029/2005JE002556. [PDF]

Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, X. L. Huang, 2006.

     Interaction of moist convection with zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. ICARUS, 180, 113-123. [PDF]

Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, C. C. Porco, A. D. Del Genio, S. P. Ewald, 2004.

     Life cycles of spots on Jupiter from Cassini images. ICARUS, 172, 9-23. [PDF]

Li, L., F. Huang, D. Chi, S. Liu, 2002.

    Thermal effects of the Tibetan Plateau on Rossby waves. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 19, 901-913.

Li, L.,D. Huang, F. Qiao, S. Liu, 2000.

    The diabatic waves in barotropic model.  Journal of tropical meteorology, 6, 1-12.


Selected Workshops, talks, and Conferences


Li, L., 2014. Exploring Planetary Atmospheres from the Perspective of Energy, Caltech/GPS,

Planetary Science Seminar, invited, 2014.


Li, L., 2013, Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 2013.


Li, L., et al.,  2012, Energy budgets of giant planets and Titan, DPS meeting. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., 44, 2012.



Li, L., et al., Mechanical energies of the upper atmosphere in the high latitudes of Mars.

      EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union, P21A-1653, 2011.


Li, L., et al., Precipitation and global warming.

      NASA Sounder Science Team Meeting, Pasadena, CA, 2010.


Li, L., et al., Emitted power of Saturn based on Cassini/CIRS observations.

      EOS Transactions AGU, Vol., 90, P32C-03, 2009.


Li, L., et al., Hydrologic recycle of atmospheric moisture based on AIRS observations.

      NASA Sounder Science Team Meeting, Pasadena, CA, 2009.



"Perspective and Challenges in GFD ? " - the fiftieth year of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (GFD) program at the WHOI.

       July 2008 at WHOI in Woods Hole.


The Explicit Planetary Isentropic-Coordinate (EPIC) atmospheric model workshop. 

       September 2006 at Comparative Planetology Laboratory (CPL) of University of Louisville, Louisville.


The NCAR/Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division's the Advanced Research WRF (ARW). 

       July 2005 at Foothills Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado.


Li, L., et al., Equatorial jets and waves based on Cassini CIRS/ISS. DPS meeting,

      Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., Vol., 40, 2008.


Li L., "Atmospheric jets and waves on the four giant planets", GFD, 2008 (invited talk).


Li, L., B. J. Conrath, F. M. Flasar, and P. J. Gierasch, et al., Revisit of the thermal wind equation: application to planetary atmospheres.

      EOS Transactions AGU, Vol., 88(24), P41A-0208, 2007.


Li L., "Jovian atmosphere from observation and theory", UCLA, 2006.


Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, X. Jiang, D. Feldman, Y.L. Yung, Lorenz energy cycle of the global atmosphere based on modern datasets.

      EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol., 87(43), A13D-0969, 2006.

Li, L., et al.,Waves in Jupiter's atmosphere observed by the Cassini ISS and CIRS instruments.

       Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., 38th DPS meeting,2006.

Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, A. A. Simon-Miller, A. D. Del Genio, S. P. Ewald, C. C. Porco, R. A. West,

       Vertical wind shear on Jupiter from Cassini images, EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 86, No. 46, P11C-0134, 2005. [PDF]

Li, L., A. P. Ingersoll, and X. Huang, Interaction of moist convection with Jupiter's zonal jets,

       EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 85, No. 47, P51B-1428, 2004.

Ingersoll, A. P., and L. Li, Life cycles of spots on Jupiter from Cassini images, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., 36th DPS meeting, 2004. [PDF]

Li, L., and A. P. Ingersoll, Modeling the interaction of moist convection with the zonal jets of Jupiter, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., 36th DPS meeting, 2004. [PDF]